Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania
You are here: Home > Asia > Indonesia


Yearbook 1999

1999 IndonesiaIndonesia. In January, the government announced its willingness to allow East Timor to become independent. Freedom leader Jos谷 "Xanana" Gusmão was moved from prison to house arrest, where he could in relative freedom receive visitors and keep in touch with the outside world (see further East Timor).

Severe unrest occurred in several places in the wake of I's economic crisis. In the province of Aceh in northern Sumatra, where the military has been working hard for a separatist movement since the 1980s, soldiers carried out several massacres on civilians. Bloody clashes also occurred between the army and the guerrillas. In the Moluccan archipelago, Muslims and Christians fought each other, and in western Borneo, new settlers were attacked by locals.

According to Countryaah official website, parliamentary elections were held on June 7, the first free election of 44 years. Winners became Indonesia's Democratic Party for Struggle (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan, PDIP), which received 154 seats, while the Golkar government party got 120 seats. Three Muslim parties passed the two percent block by a good margin, and 14 small parties entered the parliament through a voting system. 38 seats were reserved for military.

1999 Indonesia

In October, presidential elections were held in the People's Advisory Assembly (MPR), consisting of Parliament's 500 members and 200 nominated representatives of the provinces and civil organizations. Before the election, MPR rejected President Jusuf Habibie's work, after which he did not stand for re-election. A majority supported the moderate Muslim leader Abdurrahman Wahid as new president. He defeated PDIP President Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of I's first President Sukarno, by 373 votes to 313. She was elected Vice President the following day.

Wahid formed a unity government with most of the major groups represented: Muslims, military, moderate Golan members, reformists, human rights activists and even two representatives of the economically influential Chinese minority. Wahid described decentralization of power as one of the most important tasks. Decentralization was seen as a necessity for I's cohesion, against the backdrop of strengthened independence requirements in Aceh, where around 300 people had been killed during the year. Wahid suggested that Aceh could get a referendum on independence, but under pressure from government colleagues and the army, he later said that a referendum could only apply to the introduction of Islamic law.

I's economy recovered slowly after falling more than 13% in 1998. GDP was expected to remain unchanged in order to grow by a few percent in 2000.

The International Monetary Fund halted the payment of a $ 4.6 billion loan after it was discovered that multimillion amounts were transferred from Bank Bali to the Golkar circle before the election. The loan negotiations were resumed after the new government investigated the deal and confirmed that at least $ 2.2 million went directly to Golkar's party fund.

As one of its last measures, the outgoing government closed the investigation into former President Suharto's suspected misappropriation of state funds. However, the new government said the investigation would resume.

On October 31, a 24-year occupation of East Timor was terminated, when Indonesia officially resigned the area to UN administration.

Other Countries in Asia

Countries and Learners Copyright 1999 - 2020 All Rights Reserved