Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania
You are here: Home > Asia > India

India

Yearbook 1999

1999 IndiaIndia. The government resigned in April after losing a vote of confidence in a single vote triggered by the coalition of All-India party Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) leaving the coalition. New elections were announced after the Congress Party, All India Congress Committe (I), failed to form a new government.

The relationship with Pakistan seemed to improve at the beginning of the year. In the spring, however, clashes increased along the standstill line in Kashmir. India sent 30,000 soldiers to the area when it was discovered that more than 1,000 men, many of whom were said to belong to the Pakistani army, had invaded Indian soil. Only after nearly two months of fighting, including air strikes, did India start to drive out the invaders. Pakistan's commander-in-chief admitted that "aggressive patrol operations" were taking place on Indian territory. US pressure accelerated the Pakistani retreat. More than 1,000 men from each side were believed to have been killed in the conflict, whose peril was underlined by both countries' nuclear weapons holdings and that both had tried new medium-range robots in April.

According to Countryaah official website, the border conflict was followed by increased guerrilla activity in Kashmir. During the fall, suicide attacks were carried out against the state government office and military headquarters. In August, Indian flights shot down a Pakistani reconnaissance plane across the border of the state of Gujarat and all 16 on board were killed.

The strong patriotism that led to the border conflict favored the expedition government dominated by the Indian People's Party, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), in the fall election. Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee could also point out that the government's way of dealing with the crisis improved the country's relations with the major powers, which were damaged by the nuclear explosions in 1998. The economy also favored the BJP government. Inflation was only 8% and on the way down, growth was estimated at 7% and the state's tax revenue had increased by 13% since 1998. The monsoon rains were good and there was room for increased private consumption. The National Democratic Alliance, consisting of the BJP and 23 smaller parties, got 298 of the 545 seats and the BJP became the single largest party with 182 seats. The Congress Party, damaged by an internal conflict over party leader Sonia Gandhi's Italian background, made his worst choice with only 113 seats. However, Sonia Gandhi was elected with the highest margin of victory of all candidates.

In November, the Pope visited India, which was characterized by Hindu irritation over a supposedly increased Christian missionary activity. In the state of Orissa, an Australian missionary and his two sons were murdered in January and a Catholic priest in September. The year also saw a worsening conflict in the state of Bihar between landowner militia and low-caste rural workers. Several massacres on farm workers were followed by revenge attacks by Maoist-inspired guerrillas against landowners. The strongest cyclone that hit India in decades caused devastation in Orissa in October. About 10,000 people were killed and the infrastructure suffered severe damage.

In the autumn, the legal aftermath of the Bofors affair began, the bribery scandal surrounding the Swedish company's order for field hobbies in 1986. The then Bofors chief Martin Ardbo and the company's current management were called to stand trial but stayed at home.

An Indian airliner was hijacked on Christmas Eve on the way from Kathmandu in Nepal to New Delhi. For a whole week, the plane remained standing at Qandahar airport in Afghanistan, where the hijackers demanded that Kashmiri guerrilla members be released from Indian prisons. During the final hours of the year, hostages were released, after the Indian government released three prisoners. A man in hostage was killed the first day.

In December, former President Shanker Dayal Sharma passed away at the age of 81. He was Head of State 1992-97.

1999 India

India has also strengthened its relations with other regional heavyweights in the Third World. This is especially true of South Africa and Brazil. In April 2006, India also hosted an Indian-African Summit, attended by leaders from 15 African states.

Singh's economic reforms and the opening of the country's borders ensured high economic growth in the middle of the decade. In 2007, the Indian economy grew by 9% - the second largest growth in the world after China.

A November 2008 terror attack against Mombay cost 171 lives and 300 injured. The attack worsened relations with Pakistan when the terrorists came from there, which was initially categorically denied by the Pakistani government. The Lashkar-e-Taiba group was responsible for the attack, but also Hindu groups have carried out terrorist actions in India.

The April-May 2009 parliamentary elections were a victory for the Congress party, rising almost 4% to 37.2%. The party could therefore continue in government. The Hindu BJP went back almost 5% to 24.6%, while the largest Communist Party CPI (M) went back 1% to 21.2%.

Prominent social activist Anna Hazare launched a hunger strike on April 5, 2011, to put pressure on the government to pass a new law to combat widespread corruption in the country. The hunger strike received great attention and support, both inside and outside India. Already four days later, 74-year-old Hazare was able to quell the hunger strike after parliament passed the new anti-corruption law. On August 16, he would resume the hunger strike because of the government's unwillingness to enforce the provisions of the law, but this time he and several hundred supporters were arrested in New Delhi. The arrest sparked protests across the country.

The BRICS countries met in April 2011 for the 3rd BRICS summit in China. The countries put pressure on China to make it import more processed goods from the other countries. pharmaceutical products from India. There was a focus on increased trade between the BRICS countries. The summit also agreed to condemn NATO's bombing of Libya, allegedly carried out under the UN mandate. BRICS supports a Security Council reform, so that India, Brazil and South Africa also become permanent members of the Security Council. India joined the Council in January 2011 for the two-year period 2011-12.

Clashes with Maoist groups continued in 2011 in Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The Indian Supreme Court handed down an important ruling in July when it ordered the state-backed Salwa Judum militia in Chhattisgarh dissolved. Since 2005, 3,000 had been killed in the state of Chhattisgarh and 25,000 displaced. The militia accounted for a significant portion of human rights violations in the state. The ceasefire and peace talks between Maoists and West Bengal authorities collapsed in November when the Maoist leader in the state, Koteshwar “Kishenji” Rao was killed.

Terrorism-related violence dropped drastically in 2011 compared to previous years. However, 3 bombs went off in Mumbai in May and in September a bomb killed 15 outside the Delhi High Court.

In February 2012, a bomb attack was carried out against an Israeli diplomatic car in New Delhi, India. The wife of the embassy military attaché was slightly injured. On the same day, a bomb 200m was discovered from the Israeli embassy in Tblisi, Georgia, and the next day, 4 were injured by bomb material that jumped prematurely in Bangkok. Observers pointed to Iran as the likely backer of the attacks, even though the country denied this and condemned them as terrorist acts. The attacks were seen as revenge for the previous years' killing of Iranian nuclear physicists, which Israel was believed to be behind. One month later, Israeli police arrested Indian journalist Syed Mohammed Kazmi, who worked for an Iranian news organization, and charged him with the attack. In July, Indian police concluded that the Iranian Revolutionary Guard was ultimately behind the attack.

 

Other Countries in Asia

Countries and Learners Copyright 1999 - 2020 All Rights Reserved